Globalisation, Internationalisation & innovation
There has long been a debate about just how far transnational companies were locating innovation activities around the world, as opposed to keeping them close to their headquarters and country of origin. Evidence concerning R&D and patenting told a sufficiently ambiguous story for a lively controversy among academics and consultants. In recent years, however, the picture has become even more complicated, as globalization has opened up new consumer – and labour – markets, and as swathes of service and professional work have been offshored. What does this mean for the location of various types of innovative activities, for technology and knowledge transfer, for the directions of the innovation process itself? These, and related, issues are explored further under this theme.