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Intellectual property in a knowledge-based economy : Patents to include vs. patents to exclude.

The traditional perception of patents puts the emphasis on their importance to exclude imitators and to restore incentives to invent. This view is far too restrictive and at variance with many empirical and theoretical works. We show that these contradictions can be overcome by shifting from a tradi...

By : Patrick Cohendet
Matthieu Farcot
Julien PĂ©nin

From Working paper, published on 30-04-2009

Do patents in Europe benefit society and the public, or do they stifle innovation?

Presentation, seminar 4: “Do patents in Europe benefit society and the public, or does it stifle innovation?” European Patent Forum and PATINNOVA 2009 Prague, April 28, 2009...

By : Prof. Ove Granstrand

From Conference Paper, published on 28-04-2009

IP and Knowledge Transfer Activities of the EPO

PATINNOVA PRESENTATION: IP and Knowledge Transfer Activities of the EPO, Noel Campling, Prague 29 April 2009....

By : NoĂ«l Campling

From Conference Paper, published on 28-04-2009

Open Innovation and IPR: Introductory remarks

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27 January 2009. Miles presents the overall context of the workshop, introducing PRO-INNO, INNO-GRIPS and the purpose of the meeting. ...

By : Miles, Ian - University of Manchester

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

Reflections on intellectual property & innovation

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27 January 2009. Cameron’s thoughtful presentation gives a solid historical and contextual overview of open innovation and its relat...

By : Cameron, Hugh - University of Manchester

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

IPR Frameworks: Role in Open and Traditional Innovation Processes with specific reference to Technology Valorisation

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27 January 2009. Focusing on the medical electronics sector, this presentation addresses how current literature on Open Innovation pays cl...

By : Thomson, Julie - University of the West of Scotland

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

IPR management in collaborative crowdsourcing

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27 January 2009. The presentation illustrates a novel model for collaborative crowdsourcing and other collaborative environments where IPR...

By : Apreda, R.
Fantoni, G. - University of Pisa
Manenti, M.
Valleri, P.
Bonaccorsi, A.

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

Tension Between Actors: An examination of IP in Open Innovation

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27 January 2009. The open innovation paradigm emphasizes the availability and importance of external knowledge resources for the innovatio...

By : Voss, Georgina - University of Brighton

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

The role of IP marketplace towards supporting Open Innovation: Policy Actions.

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27 January 2009. Intellectual property rights can be associated with monopolistic market structures, as current IPR legislation is exclusi...

By : Rosli, A. - Birkbeck University of London

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

Three Axioms on Open Innovation and a (Non-) Parametric Application to the Entrepreneurial Cas

This PowerPoint presentation was presented at the INNO-GRIPS Early Career Researcher Workshop on Open Innovation and IPR, held at the University of Manchester 26-27January 2009. After a brief discussion of the economics and resource-based principles underlying the open innovation (OI) paradigm we em...

By : Cuntz, Alexander - Berlin University of Technology

From Conference Presentation , published on 03-02-2009

Investing in innovation 'key to economic recovery'

This article by Euractiv gives a short presentation of the Commission's position on investment in innovation in the context of the current economic crisis. Background documents and relevant links are associated to the article.  ...

By : 

From, published on 29-01-2009

Backgrounder: The U.S. Economic Stimulus Plan

President barack Obamatook office in January 2009 facing the country's biggest economiccrisis since the Second World War. Obama and Democratic Party leadershave suggested an economic stimulus package to confront the crisis.This package, they say, will save or create over three million and p...

By : Lee Hudson Teslik

From Journal, published on 27-01-2009

Open innovation and IPR

Open innovation has become a rallying cry for managers and innovation researchers alike, though there are doubts expressed as to the scope of this term, and the prevalence of the practices referred to. Intellectual property issues are often raised as factors to consider in the context of open innova...

By : 

From NA, published on 26-01-2009

Innovation Should Mean More Jobs, Not Less

CREATING new jobs is a good way to get America’s economy moving again. That’s not the controversial part of President-elect Barack Obama'seconomic stimulus plans. As usual, the devil is in the details. Andinnovation advocates fear that if the devil runs amok, a short-sightedemphasis on ...

By : Janet Rae-Dupree

From Journal, published on 03-01-2009

Coming up for air after the recession: Which countries and sectors will lead the recovery?

The US, EU and Japan have all dived into an unusually synchronised and deep recession that will not reach its low point until early 2009. The OECD bloc will see a drop in GDP larger than the decline in 1975 or 1982,on a scale unprecedented since the 1940s. Emerging markets growth will also fall shar...

By : 

From Business (or Representative) Position Paper , published on 01-01-2009

Against Intellectual Property

This monograph is justifiably considered a modern classic.  Stephan Kinsella  caused a worldwide rethinking among libertarians of the very basis of intellectual property. Mises had warned against patents, and Rothbard did too. But Kinsella goes much further to argue that the very existence of patent...

By : Stephan N. Kinsella

From Book, published on 31-12-2008

The Gridlock Economy.

Every so often an idea comes along that transforms our understanding ofhow the world works. Michael Heller has discovered a market dynamic that no one knew existed. Usually, private ownership creates wealth, but too much ownership has the opposite effect—it creates gridlock.When too many peopl...

By : Michael Heller

From Book, published on 26-12-2008

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

After the long economic expansion that characterized much of thecurrent decade, the nation entered its eleventh postwar recession inDecember 2007. The unemployment rate rose from 5.0% in that month to6.7% in November 2008, the latest data released to date by the U.S.Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)....

By : Linda Levine

From Public report, published on 23-12-2008

How Hard Times Can Drive Innovation

Interview of Clayton M. Christensen, a Harvard Business School professor whofocuses on innovation, on the impact of crisis on innovation.M. Christensen is the author or co-author of a number of books on the subject,from "The Innovator's Dilemma" to a book due out next month on healthcare, "The Innov...

By : 

From Journal, published on 15-12-2008

Attacking the Recession - How Innovation Can Fight the Downturn

NESTA has published thispaper to contribute to and stimulate discussion of what the recessionmeans for the UKand how it should be addressed. The aimis to focus on the short-term measures that can be taken to combat the recession and will feed UK's longer-term strength as an economy and society. Inno...

By : Leadbeater, C. & Meadway, J. with Harris, M., Crowley, T., Mahroum, S., and Poirson, P.

From Journal, published on 01-12-2008

A European Economic Recovery Plan (Communication from the Commission to the Council)

The European Economic Recovery Plan set out in thisCommunication is designed to create a basis for rapid agreement betweenMember States to get Europe's economy moving again. The EuropeanCommission calls on the European Parliament to lend its full support tothis European Economic Recovery Plan. It ca...

By : European Commission COM(2008)800

From EC reports, published on 26-11-2008

Why an Economic Crisis Could Be the Right Time for Companies to Engage in 'Disruptive Innovation'

The wild card these days is what will happen toinnovation -- the advance of progressive ideas in science, technologyand business -- now that the world economy is in a tailspin. Theconventional wisdom might suggest that business, government andacademia will be less willing to embrace the risk-taking ...

By : 

From e-Journal & Blog , published on 12-11-2008

Community-Based Production of Open Source Software: What Do We Know about the Developers Who Participate?

This paper seeks to close an empirical gap regarding the motivations, personal attributes and behavioral patterns among free/libre and open source (FLOSS) developers, especially those involved in community-based production, and considers the bearing of its findings on the existing literature and the...

By : J.S. Shapiro
Paul A. David

From Journal, published on 18-09-2008

New Directions in R&D: Current and Prospective Challenges

This paper investigates the paradox of research and development (R&D), that is being increasingly undervalued by firms and nations, and yet continues to grow and prosper in terms of overall size and reach. The analysis outlines key developments that are currently affecting the growth and development...

By : Jeremy Howells, University of Manchester

From Journal, published on 27-06-2008

Institutionalizing Innovation

Many of the case studies describing how established companies havecreated new growth businesses focus on a single success. The companiesthat get it right deserve respect and admiration. However, withinnovation, the challenge continues. Success requires the ability tochurn out successful growth busin...

By : Scott D. Anthony
Mark W. Johnson
Joseph V. Sinfield

From Journal, published on 29-05-2008

Research on Innovation: A Review and Agenda for Marketing Science

Innovation is one of the most importantissues in business research today. It has been studied in manyindependent research traditions. Our understanding and study ofinnovation can benefit from an integrative review of these researchtraditions. In so doing, we identify 16 topics relevant to marketing...


From Journal, published on 29-04-2008

Advancing measures of innovation in the United States

This paper introduces major themes addressed in this special issue, which is based on NSF's Division of Science ResourcesStatistics (SRS) workshop Advancing Measures of Innovation—Knowledge Flows, Business Metrics, and Measurement Strategies,held on June 6-7, 2006 near Washington, D.C. The fir...

By : Francisco Moris
John Jankowski
Pierre Perrolle

From Journal, published on 01-04-2008

Soft Innovation as Data-Driven Process Improvement Exploited via Integrated Hospital Information Systems

Soft innovations are regarded as insightful, useful ideas originating from stakeholders within the organization. This study takes a newa pproach to examining the origins of soft innovations within an opensystems environment from an organizational context perspective. Basedon a 30-month longitudinal ...

By : J. Ryan
B. Doster
S. Daily
M. Heslin

From Working Paper, published on 07-01-2008

Running Faster To Keep Up: Globalization of Innovation in U.S. High-Technology Industries

As stated in its introduction, the book originates from the STEP Board Study. To better understand the changing terms of global competition at theindustry and firm levels, the STEP Board commissioned papers on 11industries ranging from semiconductors to biotechnology to venturecapital. They are conc...

By : David C. Mowery - Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley (USA)

From Chapter in edited book, published on 06-01-2008

Innovation, productivity and growth in US business services: A firm-level analysis

This paper examines the impact of innovation on the performance of USbusiness service firms. We distinguish between different levels ofinnovation (new-to-market and new-to-firm) in our analysis, and allowexplicitly for sample selection issues. Reflecting the literature,which highlights the importanc...

By : Mica Ariana Mansurya
James H. Love

From Journal, published on 01-01-2008

Measuring firm innovativeness: towards a composite innovation index built on firm innovative posture, propensity and performance attributes

The ability to innovate is generally accepted as a critical successfactor to growth and future performance of firms. Yet, this acceptance obscures a comprehensive perspective on how firms can influence their innovation capacity and resulting performance. This paper proposes a '3P' construct of innov...

By : Elias G. Carayannis
Mike Provance

From Journal, published on 01-01-2008

Patents and Patent Policy

A patent is the legal right of an inventor to exclude others from making or using a particular invention. This right is sometimes termed an ‘intellectual property right’ and is viewed as an incentive for innovation. This article surveys the evidence on patent effectiveness in encouraging...

By : Bronwyn Hall

From Journal, published on 28-12-2007

The Race to the Top A Review of Government's Science and Innovation Policies

The best wayfor the UK to compete, in an era of globalisation, is to move into high-value goods,services and industries. An effective science and innovation system is vital to achieve this objective. The UK is internationally renowned for its research baseand this status requires continued support.G...

By : 

From Public report, published on 05-10-2007

Global Science and innovation forum: A strategy for international engagement in R&D

We are now – probably more than ever before – living in a global age; we can access vast quantities of information from all around the world and interact with a far greater diversity of people than has ever been possible before. Advances in science, engineering and technology have provid...

By : GSIF - GSIF (United Kingdom)

From Economics of Innovation and New Technology, published on 01-10-2007

Globalisation, poverty and inequality

The idea of globalisation is sold to the developing countries with promises of handsome dividends. Yet most of those promises have not materialised yet. This concept of globalisation necessarily involves a greater dependence on international trade, especially exports, along with the reduction of tar...

By : Lionel Wijesiri - Daily News - Sri Lanka Newspaper (Sri Lanka)

From Journal, published on 03-09-2007

Innovation of Products and Services: Bridging World's Economies

A newly introduced product or a service is labeled ‘successful innovation’ only after it has been proven in market. Certainly, market failures of products/services or their improvements are much more common thancommercial successes, which is a significant drawback. The ideas introduced i...

By : A. Kusiak

From Working paper, published on 01-08-2007

Summary Report of the Study on Globalisation and Innovation in the Business Services Sector

The services sector makes an important contribution to employment growth, productivity and innovation in OECD countries. At the OECD's 2005 Ministerial Council Meeting, Ministers stressed the need to deepen the understanding of globalisation and innovation in key services sectors. A programme of fol...

By : Science, Technology and Industry Directorate - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (France)

From NA, published on 31-05-2007

Beating the odds in the innovation arena: The role of market and technology signals classification and noise

Innovation is a risky business. Notwithstanding the attention in research on the determinants of innovation success, the estimates of the extremely high failure rates (ranging from 40% to 90%) have not come down. As a result, new approaches have to be found to address the issues that prevent organiz...

By : Mark A.A.M. Leendersa
Corné A.M. Voermans

From Journal, published on 01-05-2007

Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Innovation and Entrepreneurship is an accessible introductory text written primarily for students of business and management studies. The book is also suitable for engineering students studying courses in business and management. Contemporary issues in both innovation and entrepreneurship are used t...

By : John Bessant
Joe Tidd

From Book, published on 20-04-2007

Act Globally, Think Locally

Here's a paradox of our age: The more global the economy and your business, the more important location and physical proximitybecome. Yes, issues of location-the choice of a factory site, for example, orthe tailoring of a marketing message to a region-have always been of strategic importance. Howeve...

By : Ms Yoko Ishikura - Hitotsubashi University (Japan)

From Harvard Business Review, published on 02-02-2007

Building Linkages for Competitive and Responsible Entrepreneurship

The publications available here for downloading are products of a research partnership between UNIDO and Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative (CSRI), Mossavar-Rahmani Centre for Business and Government, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.The reports illustrate new models ...

By : Jane Nelson - Harvard College (USA)

From Edited Book, published on 31-01-2007

Barriers to innovation: The right attitude and metrics

Purpose – Reviews the latest management developmentsacross the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting-edgeresearch and case studies. Design/methodology/approach – This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the arti...

By : General Review

From Journal, published on 01-01-2007

China: The next science superpower?

This report provides a snapshot of science and innovation in China. It aims at providing an overview of the factors that will shape Chinese science and innovation over the next decade; to assess the likely balance of opportunities and constraints; and to suggest how the UK, Europe and China can scal...

By : James Wilsdon - Demos (France)
James Keeley - Demos (France)

From Public report, published on 01-01-2007

Patent systems for encouraging innovation: Lessons from economic analysis

Economic theory views patents as policy instruments aimed at fostering innovation and diffusion. Three major implications are drawn regarding current policy debates. First, patents may not be the most effective means of protection for inventors to recover R&D investments when imitation is costly and...

By : D. Encaoua
D. Guellec
C. Martinez

From Journal, published on 01-11-2006

2006 White paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan

Subtitled “Small and Medium Enterprises at a Turning Point,” The 2006 White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan analyzes two particular changes that SMEs face, one domestic and th other international. These are population decline within Japan, and strengthening economic ties ...

By : Research Office JSBRI - Japan Small Business Research Institute (Japan)

From Public report, published on 31-10-2006

Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation

This paper investigates the issue of intermediation and the role of intermediaries in the innovation process. The aim of this paper is three-fold. Firstly, to review and synthesis the literature in this field; from this to develop a typology and framework of the different roles and functions of the ...

By : Jeremy Howells

From Journal, published on 01-06-2006

Self-employment of immigrants: a cross-national study of 17 Western societies

This study examines the role of immigrants’ country of origin, country of destination and combinations thereof (settings or communities) in the likelihood of immigrants being self employed. I pooled census data from three classic immigrant countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) an...

By : Van Tubergen, F.

From Working Paper, published on 31-12-2005

Oslo Manual Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd Edition

The Oslo Manual is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on innovation activities in industry. This third edition has been updated to take account of the progress made in understanding the innovation process, the experience gained from the previous round ...


From Book, published on 08-11-2005

Enterprise solutions to poverty - Opportunities and Challenges for the International Development Community and Big Business

This paper has two objectives. The first is tointroduce the Shell Foundation and its way ofworking. The second is to offer up insights drawnfrom our experience as a contribution to the widerdebate on how the private sector and the InternationalDevelopment Community (IDC) canmost effectively catalyse...

By : Director Kurt Hoffman - Shell Foundation (United Kingdom)

From Public report, published on 01-03-2005

Why do Firms Co-operate for Innovation? A comparison of Austrian and Finnish CIS 3 results

This paper analyzes differences in the co-operative behaviour of innovative firms in Finland and Austria. We use data from the third wave of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS 3). Descrip-tive statistics indicate that the rate of innovators is quite similar in Austria and Finland, while the number...

By : Bernhard Dachs
Bernd Ebersberger
Andreas Pyka

From Working paper, published on 04-01-2005

Microeconomic Evidence of Creative Destruction in Industrial and Developing Countries

In this paper we provide an analysis of the process of creative destruction across 24 countries and 2-digit industries over the past decade. We rely on a newly assembled dataset that draws from different micro data sources (business registers, census, or representative enterprise surveys). The novel...

By : Eric Bartelsman - Vrije Universiteit Free University (Netherlands)
Professor John Haltiwanger - MIT (USA)
Dr Stefano Scarpetta - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (France)

From Working Paper, published on 31-10-2004

Economic Security and Value Change

A statistically significant trend toward postmaterialism in eight West European countries is observed in a time series analysis, controlling for the combined impact of inflation and unemployment. This finding confirms an earlier forecast of an intergenerational shift toward postmaterialist values. S...

By : Abramson, Paul R.; Inglehart,

From Journal, published on 30-06-2004

How Breakthroughs Happen

In this fascinating study of innovation, engineer and social scientist Andrew Hargadon argues that our romantic notions about innovation as invention are actually undermining our ability to pursue breakthrough innovations. Based on ten years of study into the origins of historic inventions and moder...

By : Andrew Hargadon

From Book, published on 31-07-2003

Open innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology

In today's information-rich environment, companies can no longer afford to rely entirely on their own ideas to advance their business, nor can they restrict their innovations to a single path to market. As a result, says Harvard Business School professor Henry W. Chesbrough, the traditional model fo...

By : Henry William Chesbrough, Harvard Business School

From Book, published on 01-04-2003

Foundations of Corporate Success: How Business Strategies Add Value

Drawing on his own business experience and on concepts in economics, legal theory, and sociology, John Kay presents a fresh approach to questions of business strategy. He rejects the military analogy which underpins much strategic thinking, in which success depends on size and share, on vision and l...

By : John Kay

From Book, published on 01-03-2003

Does emissions trading encourage innovation?

Proponents of “economic incentives” frequently state that emissions trading promotes technological innovation.Emissions trading programs authorize polluters to meet pollution reduction obligations by purchasing extra reductions from polluters reducing their emissions below applicable lim...

By : Driesen, David M. Environmental Law Institute®, Washington, DC.

From Working Paper, published on 01-01-2003

The Stock Market and Innovative Capability in the New Economy: The Optical Networking Industry

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of the stock market on the innovative capabilities of high-technology companies that have been central to what in the last half of the 1990s came to be called the 'New Economy'. The empirical focus is on equipment suppliers in optical netw...

By : Prof Marie CARPENTER - Bordeaux Business School (France)
Prof William Lazonick - University of Massachusetts Lowell (USA)
Mary A. O'Sullivan - University of Pennsylvania (USA)

From Journal, published on 01-01-2003

The Economics of Intellectual Property: A Identify Themes for Future Research

This paper reviews the literature on the economics of intellectual property rights. Intellectual property rights (IPR) refer to the legal protection accorded to certain inventions or creations of the mind, and certain features of IPR are of particular interest to economists....

By : Christine Greenhalgh
Padraig Dixon

From Working paper, published on 27-12-2002

'Integrating Models of Diffusion of Innovations: A Conceptual Framework'

This chapter provides a conceptual framework for integrating the array of variables defined in diffusion research to explicate their influence on an actor’s decision to adopt an innovation. The framework groups the variables into three major components. The first component includes characteris...

By : Wejnert, Barbara

From Journal, published on 01-12-2002

Continental, National and Sub-national Innovation Systems—Complementarity and Economic Growth

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relevance of innovation systems to economic growth rates over the last two centuries. The focus is on complementarity (or lack of it) between sub-systems of society and on models of active learning in catching up economies. The paper discusses variations i...

By : Christopher Freeman - Science Policy Research Unit (United Kingdom)

From Journal, published on 01-01-2002

The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business and Society

Manuel Castells is one of the leading sociological analysts of information societies. His prior books about large-scale social transformation have been the subjects of numerous review essays and university symposia, and some scholars view them as classics. The Internet Galaxy interprets for nonspeci...

By : Castells, M

From Book, published on 31-12-2001

Who cooperates on R&D?

Based on a largely unbiased sample of 1800 German manufacturing enterprises we analyze the propensity to maintain different forms of R&D cooperation with customers, suppliers, competitors and public research institutions. We find a relatively stable set of characteristics of those enterprises that m...

By : M. Fritsch
R. Lukas

From Journal, published on 28-12-2001

National Systems of Innovation Under Strain: The Inter-nationalisation of Corporate R&D

Productivity and its determinants are central to economic debate. This volume examines differences in productivity among nations, and provides comprehensive discussion as to why they exist; it addresses the importance of the growth and measurement of service productivity,and studies the role of huma...

By : Patel, P. and Pavitt, K.

From Edited Book, published on 31-07-2000

Reforming the Patent System

The number of intellectual property lawyers in the United States is growing faster than the amount of research. This suggests that legal costs are growing as well--and these costs are substantial; lawyer's costs alone approach $10,000 to obtain a patent and $1.5 million (per side) to litigate a pate...

By : John H. Barton

From Journal, published on 17-03-2000

Microfinance Handbook: An Institutional and Financial Perspective (Sustainable Banking With the Poor)

Microfinance is not simply banking; it is a development tool. It has been estimated that there are 500 million economically active poor people in the world operating microenterprises and small businesses. Most of them do not have access to adequate financial services. The purpose of this Handbook is...

By : Joann Ledgerwood

From Book, published on 01-12-1998

Regional Innovation Systems: The Role of Governance in a Globalised World


By : Martin Heidenreich - Bamberg University (Germany)
Hans-Joachim Braczyk - University of Stutgart (Germany)
Philip Cooke - University of Wales (United Kingdom)

From Edited Book, published on 01-01-1998

The Globalisation of Technology: A New Taxonomy

Much has been written on the increasingly international generation, transmission, and diffusion of technologies, with the phenomenon having been given its own term  - techno-globalism--and interpreted by some as displacing national systems of innovation and making redundant and futile any attempt by...

By : Archibugi, D., and Michie, J.

From NA, published on 01-02-1995

The Decline of the British Economy


By : Prof William Lazonick - University of Massachusetts Lowell (USA)
Bernard Elbaum - Boston University (USA)

From Edited Book, published on 01-01-1986

The Rise of the Corporate Economy: The British Experience


By : Leslie Hannah - London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom)

From Book, published on 01-01-1983

SAPPHO Updated. Project SAPPHO Phase II

Project SAPPHO was designed as a systematic attempt to discover differences between successful and unsuccessful innovations. The technique employed is one of paired comparison, where a successful innovation is compared with an unsuccessful innovation, any difference between the two being noted. The ...

By : Rothwell, R.
Freeman, C.
Horsley, A.
Jervis, V.
Robertson, A.
Crawford, J.

From Journal, published on 01-12-1974

Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention

Paper from the published compilation "Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors" from the  National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Series....

By : Arrow, Kenneth J.

From Book, published on 31-12-1962

The Theory of Economic Development

Schumpeter proclaims in this classic analysis of capitalist society first published in 1911 that economics is a natural self regulating mechanism when undisturbed by “social and other meddlers.”  In his preface he argues that despite weaknesses, theories are based on logic and provide st...

By : Schumpeter, Joseph A.

From Book, published on 01-12-1934

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